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Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibrenk ex Otto et DietrAge: 292 years old DBH: 1.4m Place: Tianmushan Mountain, west Zhejiang province, China
Landform in ZhejiangLowlands and hills are the major landforms in Zhejiang. Besides, Zhejiang has an undulated surface relief, declining like a ladder from the southwest to the northeast. The southwest is occupied by mountainous areas with an average elevation of 800 meters; in particular, Huangmaojian, at an elevation of 1,929 meters, is the highest mountain in the Province. The central area is mainly dominated by hills of over 500 meters, dotted between with over 40 big or small basins. And in the northeast are mainly alluvial plains at elevations of less than 10 meters and typographically flat regions, deep soil, and intersecting rivers. Based on the area variation and surface configuration, Zhejiang can be classified into six morphologic regions, namely, the plains in the north, the low hills in the west, the hills in the east, Jinhua-Quzhou Basin in the center, mountainous regions in the south, the coastal plains and islands in the southeast. Zhejiang province, with a terrestrial area of 101,808 sq. km amounting to one percent of the total area in China, is renowned as being made up of “70% mountains plus 10% rivers plus 20 % farmland”. Major mountains include the Tianmu Mountain, the Kuaiji Mountain, the Kuocang Mountain and the Yandang Mountain; major rivers contain the Qiantang River, the Oujiang River, the Jiaojiang River, the Tiaoxi River, the Feiyunjiang River, the Yongjiang River, the Aojiang River and the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, among which, the Qiantang River, 605 kilometers long, is the longest in Zhejiang. Furthermore, major lakes include the West Lake, the Thousand-Islet Lake, the Dongqian Lake and the South Lake. Apart from these, Zhejiang owns a long winding coastline of 2,200 kilometers, and 3,061 islands of over 500 square meters. Thus, Zhejiang is the province with the greatest number of islands in China; particularly, the Zhoushan Island is the fourth biggest in China. There are also rich geomorphologic landforms in Zhejiang, such as the Karst landform, Danxia landform, volcanic landform and fluvial landform, most of which are famous scenic spots in Zhejiang province.
Geological Heritage in ZhejiangGeological heritage, formed by geological processes during the long evolution period of the Earth, is an essential basis to understand geological phenomena, speculate geological environments and evolution conditions. Zhejiang enjoys numerous geological relics with rich contents. Preliminary records show there are 895 geological relics, including eight major types: categories such as strata, structures, rocks, minerals, extinct plants and animals, geological hazards, landforms and water bodies. In addition, there are 56 national geological relics, 215 provincial ones, among which, Changxing, Changshan “Golden Spike” section—the international boundary stratotype section is renowned throughout the world.
Geology in ZhejiangZhejiang is a key component of the circum-Pacific magmatic active belt. Divided by Jiangshan-Shaoxing deep fracture, Zhejiang comprises the northwest and southeast regions with distinct geological differences, mainly characterized by the well-developed strata, frequent magmatic activities, complex geological structures, and excellent minerogenetic conditions.
Minerals in Zhejiang02Distribution of mineral resources is relatively concentrated with a good many associated ores. Furthermore, construction minerals are prevalent in the northwest; nonferrous metal minerals, such as gold, silver, copper and iron in the center of Zhejiang, construction minerals, such as alunite and illite in the southeast of Zhejiang.
Minerals in Zhejiang01A great majority of minerals in Zhejiang are non-metals. Among the 72 kinds of non-metallic minerals discovered so far, stone coal, alunite, pyrophyllite, limestone for cement, and tuff for construction rank the top in China; fluorite, the second; diatomite the third. In addition, included in the top ten are aedelforsite, kaolin clay, bentonite, granite and marble. Among the metallic minerals, the reserves of silver, zinc, vanadium, tin and cadmium are among the top ten in China, with the great potentials of lead and zinc.
Soil and Land in ZhejiangZhejiang province shows distinct areal classification of the soil type and its distribution. The zonal soils in the northwestern, southwestern and the eastern hilly areas of Zhejiang are mainly red earth and yellow earth; in water plains in the north and the coastal plains in the southeast, paddy soil; in the narrow fringe outside the coastal plains, moisture soil and coastal saline soil; in the Red-bed Basin, purple soil; in hilly areas in the northwest, limestone soil and in the mountainous areas in the east and southwest of Zhejiang, mainly skeleton soil. Land is the most fundamental natural resource for people’s existence and development. Zhejiang is one of the provinces with the smallest land area in China, for there is serious contradiction between a big population and limited farmland. Zhejiang has a total land area of 105, 400 sq. km; while land per capita is about 0.22 ha.; its arable land takes up only 19.75 percent of the total land in Zhejiang and arable land per capita is about 0.04 ha., far lower than the alarm level of 0.05 ha. Therefore, farmland protection has been the core of the sustainable utilization of land resources in Zhejiang province.
Climate in ZhejiangSituated in the subtropical monsoon climate region, Zhejiang Province has moderate year temperature, four distinct seasons, plentiful sunshine and rainfall, humid air with obvious alternation of winter and summer monsoons. Greatly influenced by the sea, Zhejiang Province has a more favorable temperature and humidity than the inland monsoon regions of the same latitude. It is calculated that there are altogether 1100-2200 sunshine hours in a year with an average temperature of 15 to 18°C, and approximately 140-180 rainy days in a year with an average rainfall of 1000-2000 mm. . Due to the instability of monsoons, disastrous weathers often strike Zhejiang Province, e.g. low temperatures and cold waves in winter; sweltering heat in summer; drought and typhoons in autumn; floods in flood season; hail and gales in spring and summer, posing great threats to the production and life in Zhejiang.
Green ZhejiangZhejiang, located in the southeastern coast and the south of the Yangtze Delta in China, is named after the Qiantang River, the biggest river winding through the Province. The Qiantang River is also named the Zhijiang River (Zhi is homophonic with Zhe, meaning winding in Chinese). Enjoying a time-honored history, Zhejiang witnessed the activities of ancient “Jiande Men” in the present-day western mountainous regions as early as 50,000 years ago in the Paleolithic Age. Besides, Zhejiang covers a terrestrial area of 101,800 sq. km, an oceanic area of 260,000 sq. km with a long twisting coastline, numerous islands, and the biggest fishing ground in China. In addition, thanks to varied land shapes, congenial climate, favorable natural conditions, abundant animal and plant resources, top-ranking forest coverage in China, Zhejiang is gradually becoming “green Zhejiang” dynamic with economic prosperity, charming scenery and a civilized society.
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